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Some uncommon examples of sources and how to reference them

We have used just one of the many variations on the Harvard author-date style in this document. Be sure to adapt what you see here to your own referencing style.

Referencing format used here:

Book: Author/s date, title , edition, publisher, place of publication.

Miller, AW & Hanretty, KP 1997, Obstetrics illustrated, 5th edn, Churchill Livingstone, New York.

Article: Author date, 'article title', journal title , volume, issue, page numbers

Biggs, M 1999, 'Breaking the silence: the passing wind', Literary Times, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 232-237.

Finding uncommon examples: on the internet

The most useful method of finding examples of uncommon references is to Google it. All universities provide citing and referencing pages which are open to anyone. However, you may need to look at several sites before you find a really tricky example. The sites listed below are well worth book- marking.

Our Google sample search: Harvard referencing music score

Some examples of uncommon sources

  • Computer software
  • CompHorse Version 4 for Windows 2006, [Computer program], Bunyip, Victoria, Australia, Horseplay Inc.

  • Conference proceedings
  • Gordon, M 1994, The role of the court jester in the palace, Proceedings of the 1999 Conference of the South Australian Institute of Historians, Adelaide, 18-23 June 1999, pp. 46-59, The Institute, Prospect, SA.

  • Correspondence
  • Fraser, C 1997, Letter to the Town Clerk of Paraloo, 5 May. [Original copy in records of the Town Council of Paraloo].

  • Course notes
  • Potter, ES 2000, Writing fables and myths, Melbourne: Carlton South. [Course notes].

  • Electronic discussion groups and bulletin boards
  • Johnson, B 2005, 'The passing reference', Indexers' Discussion Group, 19 December [Online] Available from:

  • Government report
  • Administrative Review Council (Australia) 1988, Access to administrative review: provision of legal and financial assistance in administrative law matters, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

  • Images on the internet
  • Marshall, J 2000, Cathedral clock , [Online image]. Available at: (Accessed 6 November 2006).

  • Interview
  • Tickle, K 1993, [Personal communication], April 18

  • Interview (taped)
  • Winton, Tim 1995, Interview with the author on 4 August 1995, Perth. [Cassette recording in possession of author].

  • Map
  • Survey and Mapping of Victoria 1993, Outdoor leisure map. Cathedral Range, 2nd edn, 1:25 000, Vicmap, Melbourne

  • Music on CD
  • Moon, Matt 2002, Sweet wheelbarrow blues , [CD recording] Chord Music Company, Bunyip

  • Newspaper cartoon
  • Brown, S. 2006, 'The alleged al-Qaida threat to Los Angeles ', Guardian. February 10, 2006, p.29

  • Painting

    Van Gogh, V. 1888. Sunflowers , [oil on canvas, 92.1 x 73 cm]. National Gallery, London

  • Pamphlet
  • Australian Reptile Society 1992, Code of ethics, 4th edn. [Brochure]. Sydney, Australia:


    (Note: 'Author' is used as above in all references when author and publisher are identical.)

  • Patent
  • Frissle, P 2003, Gaiters for clergymen with varicose veins, U.S. Pat. 578,863,790.

  • Photographs and slides
  • Jones, M 1998, Makybe Diva [Photograph], Bunyip Image Gallery, Melbourne.

  • Press or media release
  • Cooper, G 2006, BGT profits to double , media release, BGT Ltd., Albury, 4 November

  • Press or media release (online)
  • National Frog Institute December 3,1999, Frogs in danger of extinction , press release. Retrieved October 3, 2006, from

  • Radio broadcast
  • The search for meaning 1998, [radio program], ABC Radio, Sydney , 24 March

  • Standards
  • Standards Australia 1997, Size coding scheme for women's clothing - underwear, outerwear and foundation garments, AS 1344-1997. Retrieved November 8, 2006, from Standards Online Premium database

  • Statistics - Australian Bureau of Statistics
  • Australian Bureau of Statistics 2004, Australian social trends 2004, Cat. no. 4102.0, ABS, Canberra, viewed December 10, 2004, from Australian Bureau of Statistics database

  • Telephone conversation
  • Smythe, K.W, 1993 [personal communication] April 18

  • Television broadcast
  • What are we going to do with the money? 1997, [television program], ABC Television, Sydney, 8 August.

  • Translation
  • Widmar, S 2002, Udders: winter hygiene aspects, translated from the German by LA Bruce, Penguin

    Books, London. (Originally published in 1940)

  • Virtual Learning Environment (MUSO) Tutor's notes
  • Moore, J 2006, 'Study skills', Introduction to university learning, [Online] Available at

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