Chapter 5: Thermal Conductivity

References

Primary references for the concepts and data presented in Chapter 5.

The generation of hydrocarbons from organic matter:

Durand, B. (1980). Sedimentary organic matter and kerogen. Definition and quantitative importance of kerogen. In Kerogen: Insoluble Organic Matter from Sedimentary Rocks, ed. B. Durand, pp. 13–34. Paris: Editions Technip.

Durand, B. and Monin, J.C. (1980). Elemental analysis of kerogens (C, H, O, N, S, Fe). In Kerogen: Insoluble Organic Matter from Sedimentary Rocks, ed. B. Durand, pp. 113–142. Paris: Editions Technip.

Edwards, J.S. and Durucan, S. (1991). The origins of methane. Mining Science & Technology, 12(2), 193–204.

Ejedawe, J.E. and Coker, S.J.L. (1984). Dynamic interpretation of organic-matter maturation and evolution of oil-generative window. AAPG Bulletin, 68(8), 1024–8.

Goldstein, T.P. (1983). Geocatalytic reactions in formation and maturation of petroleum. AAPG Bulletin, 67(1), 152–9.

Gretener, P.E. and Curtis, C.D. (1982). Role of temperature and time on organic metamorphism. AAPG Bulletin, 66(8), 1124–49.

Hood, A., Gutjahr, C.C.M. and Heacock, R.L. (1975). Organic metamorphism and the generation of petroleum. AAPG Bulletin, 59(6), 986–96.

Hunt, J.M., Lewan, M.D. and Hennet, R.J-C. (1991). Modeling oil generation with time-temperature index graphs based on the Arrhenius equation. AAPG Bulletin, 75(4), 795–807.

Leythaeuser, D., Schaefer, R.G. and Weiner, B. (1979). Generation of low molecular weight hydrocarbons from organic matter in source beds as a function of temperature and facies. Chemical Geology, 25(1/2), 95–108.

Liu J. and Tang, Y. (1998). Kinetics of early methane generation from Green River shale. Chinese Science Bulletin, 43(22), 1908–12.

Makhous, M, Galushkin, Y. and Lopatin, N. (1997). Burial history and kinetic modeling for hydrocarbon generation: Part II, Applying the GALO model to Saharan basins. AAPG Bulletin, 81(10), 1679–99.

Neruchev, S.G. (1970). Catagenesis of dispersed organic matter and the generation of oil and gas during the subsidence of sediments. Transactions of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences: Earth Science Sections, 194, 197–9.

Schaefer, R.G., Galushkin, Y.I., Kolloff, A. and Littke, R. (1999). Reaction kinetics of gas generation in selected source rocks of the West Siberian Basin: Implications for the mass balance of early-thermogenic methane. Chemical Geology, 156(1/4), 41–65.

Schenk, H.J., Horsfield, B., Krooss, B., Schaefer, R.G. and Schwochau, K. (1997). Kinetics of petroleum formation and cracking. In Petroleum and Basin Evolution: Insights from Petroleum Geochemistry, Geology and Basin Modelling, eds. D.H. Welte, B. Horsfield and D.R. Baker, pp.231–69. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Snowdon, L.R. and Powell, T.G. (1982). Immature oil and condensate: Modification of hydrocarbon generation model for terrestrial organic matter. AAPG Bulletin, 66(6), 775–88.

Taguchi, K. and Mori, K. (1992). The distribution and generation of hydrocarbons in carbonate source rocks. In Organic Matter: Productivity, Accumulation, and Preservation in Recent and Ancient Sediments, eds. J.K. Whelan, and J.W. Farrington, pp. 487–515. New York, NY, United States: Columbia University Press.

Talnaes, N., Wilhelms, A., Hanesand, T., Rein, E. and Hermansen, D. (1997). Variation in the kinetic parameters for hydrocarbon generation in Upper Jurassic source rocks offshore Norway. In AAPG Bulletin, vol. 81(8), (Abstracts of Meeting: AAPG Iinternational Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, September 7–10, 1997), p. 1416. Tulsa, OK, United States: American Association of Petroleum Geologists.

Tissot, B. (1984). Recent advances in petroleum geochemistry applied to hydrocarbon exploration. AAPG Bulletin, 68(5), 545–63.

Tissot, B, Durand, B., Espitalié, J. and Combaz, A. (1974). Influence of nature and diagenesis of organic matter in formation of petroleum. AAPG Bulletin, 58(3), 499–506.

Van Krevelen, D.W. (1961). Coal: Typology, Chemistry, Physics, Constitution. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Wallace, G.D. (1977). The effects of time and temperature on the maturation of organic matter and generation of petroleum. In Palynology, vol. 1, (Proceedings of Meeting: The Eighth Annual Meeting of the American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists, United States, October 29–November 1, 1976), ed. R.L Pierce, pp. 169–70. Dallas, TX, United States: American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists.

Wignall, P.B. (1994). Black Shales. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Time temperature index (TTI)

Lopatin, N.V. (1971). Temperature and geologic time as a factor in coalification. Izveotiya Akademii. Nauk SSSR, Seriya Geolicheskya, 3, 95–106.

Lopatin, N.V. (1976). The influence of temperature and geologic time on the catagenetic processes of coalification and petroleum and gas formation. In Isseledovaniya Organicheskogo Veshchestva Sovremennykh i Iskopayemykh Osakdov (Study of Organic Matter in Recent and Old Sediments), pp.361–6. Moscow: Nauka Press.

Lowrie, A., Hamiter, R., Fogarty, M.A., Orsi, T. and Lerche, I. (1996). Thermal and time-temperature index (TTI) patterns during geologic evolution of North and central Gulf of Mexico. In AAPG Bulletin, 80(9), Abstracts of Meeting: AAPG Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies, San Antonio, Texas, United States, October 2–4, 1996, p.1508. Tulsa, Oklahoma: American Association of Petroleum Geologists.

McKenzie, D.P. (1981). The variation of temperature with time and hydrocarbon maturation in sedimentary basins formed by extension. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 55, 87–98.

Wang A. and Pei Z. (1987). Improved TTI method for calculating hydrocarbon generation and expulsion amount. In Proceedings of Meeting: First International Conference on Petroleum Geochemistry and Exploration in the Afro-Asian Region, Dehra Dun, India, November 25–27, 1985, eds. R.K. Kumar, P. Dwivedi, V. Banerjie and V. Gupta, pp.59–66. Rotterdam, Netherlands: A.A.Balkema Publishers.

Waples, D.W. (1980). Time and temperature in petroleum formation: Application of Lopatin's method to petroleum exploration. AAPG Bulletin, 64, 916–26.

Wilson, E.R. (1983). Computer calculation of Lopatin's temperature-time index for quantifying hydrocarbon maturation. N.Z.G.S. Report G, 75, 21.

Vitrinite reflectance:

Barker, C.E. and Pawlewicz, M.J. (1986). The correlation of vitrinite reflectance with maximum temperature in humic organic matter. In Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences, vol. 5, Paleogeothermics, eds. G. Buntebarth and L. Stegena, pp. 79–93. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Burnham, A.K. and Sweeney, J.J. (1989). A chemical kinetic model of vitrinite maturation and reflectance. Geochemica Cosmochimica Acta, 53, 2649–57.

George, S.C., Smith, J.W. and Jardine, D.R. (1994). Vitrinite reflectance suppression in coal due to a marine transgression: A case study of the organic geochemistry of the Greta Seam, Sydney Basin. APEA Journal, 34(1), 241–55.

Issler, D.R. (1984). Calculation of organic maturation levels for offshore Eastern Canada; implications for general application of Lopatin's method. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 21(4), 477–88.

Khavari Khorasani, G. and Michelsen, J.K. (1993). The thermal evolution of solid bitumens, bitumen reflectance, and kinetic modeling of reflectance: Application in petroleum and ore prospecting. Energy Sources, 15(2), 181–204.

Morrow, D.W. and Issler, D.R. (1993). Calculation of vitrinite reflectance from thermal histories: A comparison of some methods. AAPG Bulletin, 77(4), 610–24.

Nuccio, V.F. and Hatch, J.R. (1994). Potential problems using vitrinite reflectance to calibrate thermal history models in the Illinois Basin. In Abstracts of Meeting: AAPG Annual Convention, Denver, Colorado, United States, June 12–15, 1994, p.226. Tulsa, Oklahoma: American Association of Petroleum Geologists.

Price, L.C. and Barker, C.E. (1985). Suppression of vitrinite reflectance in amorphous rich kerogen—A major unrecognised problem. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 8, 59–84.

Suzuki, N. and Matsubayashi, H. (1995). Kinetic models of petroleum generation and vitrinite reflectance; predicting the evolution of macro-molecular organic materials in sedimentary basins. Chishitsu News, 1995(3), 52–62.

Suzuki, N., Matsubayashi, H. and Waples, D.W. (1993). A simpler kinetic model of vitrinite reflectance. AAPG Bulletin, 77(9), 1502–8.

Sweeney, J.J. and Burnham, A.K. (1990). Evaluation of a simple model of vitrinite reflectance based on chemical kinetics. AAPG Bulletin, 74(10), 1559–70.

Thomas, B.M. (1982). Land-plant source rocks for oil and their significance in Australian basins. APEA Journal, 22(1), 164–78.

Fluorescence alteration of multiple macerals (FAMM):

Cooper, G.T., O’Sullivan, P.B., Sherwood, N. and Hill, K.C. (1998). Assessing maturity and the effects of diagenetic oxidation through the integration of fluorescence alteration of multiple macerals (FAMM

Han, Z, Crelling, J.C. and Yi Z. (1993). Fluorescence intensity and alteration of coal macerals and their relation to coalification. In Organic Geochemistry, vol. 20(6), (Collected Papers from the Ninth Annual Meeting of the Society for Organic Petrology, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States, July 23–24, 1992), eds. S.A. Stout and J.C. Hower, pp.677–85. Oxford-New York: Pergamon.

Lo, H.B., Wilkins, R.W.T., Ellacott, M.V. and Buckingham, C.P. (1997). Assessing the maturity of coals and other rocks from North America using the fluorescence alteration of multiple macerals (FAMM) technique. International Journal of Coal Geology, 33(1), 61–71.

Pradier, B., Largeau, C., Derenne, S., Martinez, L., Bertrand, P. and Pouet, Y. (1990). Chemical basis of fluorescence alteration of crude oils and kerogens, I: Microfluorimetry of an oil and its isolated fractions: Relationships with chemical structure. In Organic Geochemistry, vol. 16(1/3), Part I, Organic Geochemistry in Petroleum Exploration (Proceedings of Meeting: Advances in Organic Geochemistry 1989: 14th International Meeting, Paris, France, September 18–22, 1989), pp.451–60. Oxford-New York: Pergamon.

Veld, H., Wilkins, R.W.T., Xiao X. and Buckingham, C.P. (1997). A fluorescence alteration of multiple macerals (FAMM) study of Netherlands coals with "normal" and "deviating" vitrinite reflectance. Organic Geochemistry, vol. 26(3/4), 247–55.

Wilkins, R.W.T., Buckingham, C.P., Sherwood, N., Russell, N.J., Faiz, M. and Kurusingal, J. (1998). The current status of the FAMM thermal maturity technique for petroleum exploration in Australia. APPEA Journal, 38(1), 421–37.

Wilkins, R.W.T., Wilmshurst, J.R., Hladky, G., Ellacott, M.V. and Buckingham, C.P. (1995). Should fluorescence alteration replace vitrinite reflectance as a major tool for thermal maturity determination in oil exploration? In Organic Geochemistry, 22(1), (Collected Papers from the Tenth Annual Meeting of the Society for Organic Petrology, Norman, Oklahoma, United States, October 9–13, 1993), eds. B.J. Cardott, C.L. Thompson-Rizer and R. Woods, pp.191–209. Oxford-New York: Pergamon.

Wilkins, R.W.T., Wilmshurst, N.J., Russell, N.J., Hladky, G., Ellacott, M.V. and Buckingham, C.P. (1992). Fluorescence alteration and the suppression of vitrinite reflectance. Organic Geochemistry, 18, 629–40.

Thermal alteration index (TAI):

Correia, M. (1967). Relations possibles entre l'état de conservation des éléments figurés de la matière organique et l'existence de gisements d'hydrocarbures. Revue de L'Institut Français du Pétrole, 22(9), 1285–306.

Gutjahr, C.C.M. (1966). Carbonization measurements of pollen-grains and spores and their application. Leidse Geologische Mededelingen, 38, 1–29.

Schopf, J.M. (1948). Variable coalification: the process involved in coal formation. Economic Geology, 43(3), 207–25.

Staplin, F.L. (1969). Sedimentary organic matter, organic metamorphism, and oil and gas occurrence. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, 17(1), 47–66.

Staplin, F.L. (1982). Determination of thermal alteration index from color of exinite (pollen, spores). In Shortcourse Number 7. How to Assess Maturation and Paleotemperatures, ed F.L.Staplin, pp. 7–9. Tulsa, Oklahoma: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists.

Ujie, Y. (1995). Quantitative treatment of thermal alteration index data. In Journal of the Japanese Association of Petroleum Technology, vol. 60(4), (Abstracts of Meeting: 1995 Technical Meeting of the Japanese Association for Petroleum Technology, Chiba, Japan, June 7–9, 1995), p.294. Tokyo, Japan: Sekiyu Gijutsu Kyokai.

Conodont alteration index (CAI):

Deaton, B.C., Nestell, M. and Balsam, W.L. (1996). Spectral reflectance of conodonts: A step toward quantitative color alteration and thermal maturity indexes. AAPG Bulletin, 80(7), 999–1007.

Dean, M.T. and Turner, N. (1994). Conodont colour alteration index (CAI) values for the Carboniferous of Scotland. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 85(3), 211–20.

Epstein, A.G., Epstein, J.B. and Harris, L.D. (1977). Conodont color alteration—An index to organic metamorphism. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper, 995, 1–27.

Gawlick, H.J., Krystyn, L. and Lein, R. (1994). Conodont colour alteration indices: Palaeotemperatures and metamorphism in the Northern Calcareous Alps: A general view. Geologische Rundschau, 83(3), 660–4.

Helsen, S., David, P. and Fermont, W.W.J. (1995). Calibration of conodont color alteration using color image analysis. Journal of Geology, 103(3), 257–67.

Helsen, S. and Konigshof, P. (1994). Conodont thermal alteration patterns in Palaeozoic rocks from Belgium, northern France and western Germany. Geological Magazine, 131(3), 369–86.

Nicoll, R.S. and Foster, C.B. (1994). Late Triassic conodont and palynomorph biostratigraphy and conodont thermal maturation, North West Shelf, Australia. AGSO Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics, 15(1), 101–18.

Nicoll, R.S. and Gorter, J.D. (1984). Conodont colour alteration, thermal maturation and the geothermal history of the Canning Basin, Western Australia. Australian Petroleum Exploration Association Journal, 24(1), 414–29.

Orchard, M.J. and Forster, P.J.L. (1991). Conodont colour and thermal maturity of the Late Triassic Kunga Group, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. In Paper—Geological Survey of Canada, 90-10, Evolution and Hydrocarbon Potential of the Queen Charlotte Basin, British Columbia, ed. G.J. Woodsworth, pp.453–64. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Geological Survey of Canada.

Wang, Z., Baesemann, J.F., Lane, H.R. and Harris, A.G. (1994). Conodont color alteration index (CAI) maps of Ordovician through Triassic rocks in central and North China. In Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica, vol. 13(2), (Proceedings of Meeting: First Asian Conodont Symposium, Nanjing, China, September 20–22, 1994), pp.161–94. Nanjing, China: Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology.

Clay mineralogy:

Aparicio, P. and Galan, E. (1999). Mineralogical interference on kaolinite crystallinity index measurements. Clays and Clay Minerals, 47(1), 12–27.

Arkai, P. (1991). Chlorite crystallinity: An empirical approach and correlation with illite crystallinity, coal rank and mineral facies as exemplified by Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks of Northeast Hungary. In Journal of Metamorphic Geology, vol. 9(6), (Proceedings of Meeting: Phyllosilicates as Indicators of Very Low-Grade Metamorphism and Diagenesis, Manchester, United Kingdom, July 5–6, 1990), ed. R.J. Merriman, pp.723–34. Oxford, United Kingdom: Blackwell.

Arkai, P., Sassi, F.P. and Sassi, R. (1995). Simultaneous measurements of chlorite and illite crystallinity: A more reliable tool for monitoring low- to very low grade metamorphisms in metapelites: A case study from the Southern Alps (NE Italy). European Journal of Mineralogy, 7(5), 1115–28.

Bethke, C.M. and Altaner, S.P. (1986). Layer-by-layer mechanism of smectite illitization and application to a new rate law. Clays and Clay Minerals, 34(2), 136–45.

Chamley, H. (1989). Clay Sedimentology. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Costa, E. and Bonazzi, A. (1991). Influence of deformation on illite crystallinity. In Bollettino della Societa Geologica Italiana, vol. 110(3/4), (Proceedings of Meeting: Structural Geology and its Possible Contribution to the Interpretation of Deep Sseismics, Pisa, Italy, Oct. 26–27, 1989), pp.631–8. Rome, Italy:  Societa Geologica Italiana.

Essene, E.J. and Peacor, D.R. (1995). Clay mineral thermometry: A critical perspective. Clays and Clay Minerals, 43(5), 540–53.

Goy-Eggenberger, D. and Kübler, B. (1991). Clay minerals "crystallinity" and index minerals as indicators of low grade metamorphism. In Terra Abstracts, vol. 3(1), (Proceedings of Meeting: Sixth Meeting of the European Union of Geosciences, Strasbourg, France, March 24–28, 1991), p.99. Oxford, International: Blackwell Scientific Publications.

Hosterman, J.W. (1993). Illite crystallinity as an indicator of the thermal maturity of Devonian black shales in the Appalachian Basin. In USGS Bulletin, vol. B1909, Petroleum Geology of the Devonian and Mississippian Black Shale of Eastern North America, eds. J.B. Roen and R.C. Kepferle, pp.G1–G9. Reston, Virginia, United States: United States Geological Survey.

Kisch, H.J. (1980). Illite crystallinity and coal rank associated with lowest-grade metamorphism of the Taveyanne greywacke in the Helvetic zone of the Swiss Alps. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 73(3), 753–77.

Kisch, H.J. (1990). Calibration of the anchizone: A critical comparison of illite "crystallinity" scales used for definition. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 8(1), 31–46.

Kisch, H.J. (1990). Illite crystallinity: Recommendation on sample preparation, X-ray diffraction settings, and interlaboratory samples. In Journal of Metamorphic Geology, vol. 9(6), (Proceedings of Meeting: Phyllosilicates as Indicators of Very Low-Grade Metamorphism and Diagenesis, Manchester, United Kingdom, July 5–6, 1990), ed. R.J. Merriman, pp.665–70. Oxford, United Kingdom: Blackwell.

Krumm, S. and Buggisch, W. (1990). Sample preparation effects on illite crystallinity measurement: Grain-size gradation and particle orientation. In Journal of Metamorphic Geology, vol. 9(6), (Proceedings of Meeting: Phyllosilicates as Indicators of Very Low-Grade Metamorphism and Diagenesis, Manchester, United Kingdom, July 5–6, 1990), ed. R.J. Merriman, pp.671–7. Oxford, United Kingdom: Blackwell.

Kübler, B. (1967). La crystallinité de l'illite et les zones tout à fait supérieures du index of illite métamorphisme. In Etages Tectoniques (Colloque de Neuchâtel, 18-21 Avril 1966), pp.105–22. Neuchâtel: Neuchâtel University Institute Geology.

Logvinenko, N.V. (1990). Determination of illite crystallinity. Lithology and Mineral Resources, 25(2), 180–1.

Mazumdar, A. (1999). Effects of variations in specimen thickness on illite "crystallinity" measurements. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 54(5 ), 495–9.

Nieto, F. and Sanchez-Navas, A. (1994). A comparative XRD and TEM study of the physical meaning of the white mica "crystallinity" index. European Journal of Mineralogy, 6(5), 611–21.

Offler, R., Miller, J.McL., Gray, D.R., Foster, D.A. and Bale, R. (1998). Crystallinity and b0 spacing of K-white micas in a Paleozoic accretionary complex, eastern Australia: Metamorphism, paleogeotherms, and structural style of an underplated sequence. Journal of Geology, 106(4), 495–509.

Pytte, A.M. and Reynolds, R.C. (1989). The thermal transformation of smectite to illite. In Thermal History of Sedimentary Basins: Methods and Case Histories, eds. N.D. Naeser and T.H. McCulloh, pp. 133–40. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Reinhardt, M. (1991). Vitrinite reflectance, illite crystallinity and tectonics: Results from the Northern Apennines (Italy). In Organic Geochemistry, vol. 17(2), (Proceedings of Meeting: Fifth Annual Meeting of the Society for Organic Petrology and the Society for Organic Petrology/American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists Symposium, Houston, Texas, United States, November 7–9, 1988), eds. E.W. Baker and A.G. Douglas, pp.175–84. Oxford-New York, International: Pergamon.

Ruiz Cruz, M.D. and Moreno Real, L. (1994). Partially ordered mixed-layer kaolinite/dickite: Implications on the illite crystallinity determination. Mineralogica et Petrographica Acta, 37, 369–77.

Robinson, D., Warr, L.N. and Bevins, R.E. (1990). The illite "crystallinity" technique: A critical appraisal of its precision. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 8(3), 333–44.

Underwood, M.B., Brocculeri, T., Bergfeld, D., Howell, D.G. and Pawlewicz, M.J. (1992). Statistical comparison between illite crystallinity and vitrinite reflectance, Kandik region of east-central Alaska. In USGS Bulletin, vol. B2041, Geologic Studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1991, eds. D.C. Bradley and C. Dusel-Bacon, pp.222–37. Reston, Virginia, United States: United States Geological Survey.

Uysal, I.T., Glikson, M., Golding, S.D. and Audsley, F. (2000). The thermal history of the Bowen Basin, Queensland, Australia: Vitrinite relflectance and clay mineralogy of Late Permian coal measures. Tectonophysics, 323, 105–29.

Uysal, I.T., Golding, S.D. and Thiede, D.S. (2001). K-Ar and Rb-Sr dating of authigenic illite-smectite in Late Permian coal measures, Queensland, Australia: Implications for thermal history. Chemical Geology, 171, 195–211.

Warr, L.N. and Robinson, D. (1990). The application of the illite "crystallinity" technique to geological interpretation: A case study from North Cornwall. In Proceedings of the Ussher Society, vol. 7(3), (Proceedings of Meeting: 29th Annual Meeting of the Ussher Society, Exeter, United Kingdom, January, 1990), ed. C. Nicholas, pp.223–7. Bristol, United Kingdom: Ussher Society.

Pyrolysis (RockEval):

Baskin, D.K. (1997). Atomic H/C ratio of kerogen as an estimate of thermal maturity and organic matter conversion. AAPG Bulletin, 81(9), 1437–50.

Espitalie, J. (1986). Use of Tmax as a maturation index for different types of organic matter: Comparison with vitrinite reflectance. In Thermal Modeling in Sedimentary Basins, vol. 44, (Proceedings of Meeting: 1st IFP Exploration Research Conference, Carcans, France, June 3–7, 1985), ed. J. Burrus, pp.475–96. Paris, France: Ed. Technip.

Espitalie, J. and Joubert, L. (1987). Use of Tmax as a maturation index in petroleum exploration. In Proceedings of Meeting: First International Conference on Petroleum Geochemistry and Exploration in the Afro-Asian Region, Dehra Dun, India, November 25–27, 1985, eds. R.K. Kumar, P. Dwivedi, V. Banerjie and V. Gupta,  pp.67–73. Rotterdam, Netherlands: A.A. Balkema Publishers.

Evans, R.J. and Felbeck, G.T.Jr. (1983). High temperature simulation of petroleum formation, I: The pyrolysis of Green River Shale. Organic Geochemistry, 4(3/4), 135–44.

Hetenyi, M. (1998). Oxygen index as an indicator of early organic maturity. In Organic Geochemistry, vol. 29(1/3), Advances in Organic Geochemistry, 1997 (Proceedings of Meeting: 18th International Meeting on Organic Geochemistry, Maastricht, Netherlands, September 22–26, 1997), eds. B. Horsfield, M. Radke, R. Schaefer and H. Wilkes, pp.63–77. Oxford-New York, International: Pergamon.

Horsfield, B. (1984). Pyrolysis studies and petroleum exploration. In Advances in Petroleum Geochemistry, vol. 1, eds. J. Brooks and D.H Welte, pp.247–98.

Lewan, M.D. and Williams, J.A. (1987). Evaluation of petroleum generation from resinites by hydrous pyrolysis. AAPG Bulletin, 71(2), 207–14.

Meissner, F.F. and Koch, W.J. (1979). Test-tube pyrolysis: Simple technique for identifying yield and maturity of source rocks. AAPG Bulletin, 63(3), 496–7.

Page, M.M. and Kuhnel, C. (1980). Rock-Eval pyrolysis as source rock screening technique. In AAPG Bulletin, 64(5), (Abstracts of Meeting: AAPG-SEPM-EMD Annual Meeting, Denver, Colorado, United States, June 8–11, 1980), p.762. Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States: American Association of Petroleum Geologists.

Peters, K.E. (1986). Guidelines for evaluating petroleum source rock using programmed pyrolysis. AAPG Bulletin, 70(3), 318–29.

Soldan, A.L. and Cerqueira, J.R. (1986). Effects of thermal maturation on geochemical parameters obtained by simulated generation of hydrocarbons. In Organic Geochemistry, vol. 10(1/3), Advances in Organic Geochemistry, 1985, Part I: Petroleum Geochemistry (Proceedings of Meeting: 12th International Meeting on Organic Geochemistry, Julich, Federal Republic of Germany, September 16–20, 1985), eds. D. Leythaeuser and J. Ruellkotter, pp.339–45. Oxford-New York, International: Pergamon.

Fluid inclusion microthermometry (FIM):

Barker, C.E. and Goldstein, R.H. (1990). Fluid-inclusion technique for determining maximum temperature in calcite and its comparison to the vitrinite reflectance geothermometer; with Suppl. Data 90-22. Geology (Boulder), 18(10), 1003–6.

Barker, C.E. and Goldstein, R.H. (1990). A fluid-inclusion technique for determining peak temperature and its application to establish a refined calibration for the vitrinite reflectance geothermometer. In USGS Circular, vol. C1060, USGS Research on Energy Resources, 1990 (Abstracts of Meeting: Energy Research for the 1990's, Anticipating the Needs of the 21st Century: Sixth V.E. McKelvey Forum on Mineral and Energy Resources, Houston, Texas, United States, February 20–22, 1990), ed. L.M.H. Carter, pp.6–8. Reston, Virginia, United States: United States Geological Survey.

Bone, Y. and Russell, N. (1988). Palaeotemperatures in basin analysis: Direct correlation of vitrinite reflectivity with fluid inclusion microthermometry. In Abstracts—Geological Society of Australia, vol. 21, Achievements in Australian Geoscience (Abstracts of Meeting: Ninth Australian Geological Convention, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, February 1–5, 1988), ed. R. Allen, p.65. Sydney, New South Wales, Australia: Geological Society of Australia.

Green, D. and Mountjoy, E. (1999). Application of fluid inclusions and basin modeling to burial diagenesis and oil migration and maturation, Upper Devonian reservoirs, west-central Alberta. Abstracts of Meeting: AAPG 1999 Annual Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, United States, April 11–14, 1999, p.A50. Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States: American Association of Petroleum Geologists and Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists.

Hall, D.L. and Larese, R.E. (1997). Constraining petroleum migration histories with fluid inclusions. Abstracts of Meeting: AAPG 1997 Annual Convention, Dallas, Texas, United States, April 6–9, 1997, vol. 6, p.46. Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States: American Association of Petroleum Geologists and Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists.

Meyer, A.J., Pironon, J. and Pagel, M. (1990). Fluid inclusion and fission track thermochronology from the Brent sandstone reservoir (Alwyn area, North Sea). In Chemical Geology, vol. 84(1/4), (Abstracts of Meeting: 2nd International Symposium on Geochemistry of the Earth's Surface and of Mineral Formation, Aix-en-Provence, France, July 2–8, 1990), eds. Y. Noack and D. Nahon, pp.241–2. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.

Schmidt-Mumm, A. (1996). Application of fluid inclusion studies to the reconstruction of the thermal evolution of sedimentary basins. In Abstracts of Meeting: Sixth Biennial Pan-American Conference on Research on Fluid Inclusions, Madison, Wisconsin, United States, May 30–June 1, 1996, vol. 6, eds. P.E. Brown and S.G. Hagemann, pp.111–2.

Tseng, H-Y., Burruss, R.C., Onstott, T.C. and Omar, G. (1999). Paleofluid-flow circulation within a Triassic rift basin: Evidence from oil inclusions and thermal histories. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 111(2), 275–90.

Walderhaug, O. and Fjeldskaar, W. (1993). History of hydrocarbon emplacement in the Oseberg Field determined by fluid inclusion microthermometry and temperature modelling. In Norwegian Petroleum Society (NPF) Special Publication, vol. 3, Basin Modelling: Advances and Applications (Proceedings of Meeting: Norwegian Petroleum Society Conference, Stavanger, Norway, March 13–15, 1991), eds. A.G. Dore, J.H. Augustson, C. Hermanrud, D.J. Stewart and O. Sylta, pp.485–97. New York, International: Elsevier.

Molecular biomarkers:

Boreham, C.J., Crick, I.H. and Powell, T.G. (1988). Alternative calibration of the Methylphenanthrene Index against vitrinite reflectance: Application to maturity measurements on oils and sediments. Organic Geochemistry, 12, 289–94.

Chen, J., Fu, J., Sheng, G., Liu, D. and Zhang, J. (1996). Diamondoid hydrocarbon ratios: novel maturity indices for highly mature crude oils. Organic Geochemistry, 25(3/4), 179–90.

Kruge, M.A. (2000). Determination of thermal maturity and organic matter type by principal components analysis of the distributions of polycyclic aromatic compounds. In International Journal of Coal Geology, vol. 43(1/4), John R. Castano Memorial Special Issue: Energy and Environmental Issues: Geochemical and Petrological Perspectives (Proceedings of Meeting: 15th Annual Meeting of the Society for Organic Petrology, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, July 27–28, 1998), eds. P.K. Mukhopadhyay, F. Goodarzi, J.H. Calder, pp.27–51. Amsterdam, International: Elsevier.

Li, M., Johns, R.B. and Bowen, M. (1990). A study in early diagenesis: Biomarker composition of a suite of immature coals and coaly shales. In Organic Geochemistry, vol. 16(4/6), Advances in Organic Geochemistry, 1989: Part II, Molecular Geochemistry (Proceedings of Meeting:  14th International Meeting on Organic Geochemistry, Paris, France, September 18–22, 1989), eds. B. Durand and F. Behar, pp.1067–75. Oxford-New York, International: Pergamon.

MacKenzie, A.S., Lewis, C.A. and Maxwell, J.R. (1981). Molecular parameters of maturation in the Toarcian shales, Paris Basin, France—IV. Laboratory thermal alteration studies. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 45, 2369–76.

MacKenzie, A.S. and McKenzie, D. (1984). Isomerization and aromatization of hydrocarbons in sedimentary basins formed by extension. Geological Magazine, 120(5), 417–70.

Mello, M.R. (1997). Assessment of source rock organic facies using oil molecular data. In AAPG Bulletin, vol. 81(8), (Abstracts of Meeting: 1997 AAPG International Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, September 7–10, 1997), p.1398. Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States: American Association of Petroleum Geologists.

Peters, K.E. and Moldowan, J.M. (1993). The Biomarker Guide. Interpreting Molecular Fossils in Petroleum and Ancient Sediments. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Radke, M. and Welte, D.H. (1983). The methylphenanthrene index (MPI): A maturity parameter based on aromatic hydrocarbons. In Advances in Organic Geochemistry, 1981. (Proceedings of the 10th International Meeting on Organic Geochemistry, University of Bergen, Norway, 14–18 September 1981), eds. M. Bjoroy et al., pp. 504–12. Chichester, United Kingdom: Wiley & Sons.

Tissot, B.P. and Welte, D.H. (1984). Petroleum Formation and Occurrence, 2nd ed. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Tupper, N.P. and Burckhardt, D.M. (1990). Use of the methylphenanthrene index to characterise expulsion of Cooper and Eromanga Basin oils. The Australian Petroleum Exploration Association Journal, 30(1), 373–85.

van Graas, G.W. (1990). Biomarker maturity parameters for high maturities: Calibration of the working range up to the oil/condensate threshold. In Organic Geochemistry, vol. 16(4/6), Advances in Organic Geochemistry, 1989: Part II, Molecular Geochemistry (Proceedings of Meeting:  14th International Meeting on Organic Geochemistry, Paris, France, September 18–22, 1989), eds. B. Durand and F. Behar, pp.1025–32. Oxford-New York, International: Pergamon.

Wang T. and Cai K. (1990). The application of biomarkers in the study of natural gas migration and gas reservoir; source rock correlation. Acta Petrolei Sinica, 11(1), 25–31.

Fission track thermochronology (FFT):

Fleischer, R.L., Price, P.B. and Walker, R.M. (1975). Nuclear Tracks in Solids: Principles and Applications. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Galbraith, R.F. (1981). On statistical models for fission track counts. Mathematical Geology, 13, 471–88.

Gleadow, A.J.W., Duddy, I.R., Green, P.F. and Lovering J.F. (1986). Confined fission track lengths in apatite: A diagnostic tool for thermal history analysis. Contributions to Mineral Petrology, 94, 405–15.

Gleadow, A.J.W., Duddy, I.R. and Lovering, J.F. (1983). Fission track analysis: a new tool for the evaluation of thermal histories and hydrocarbon potential. APEA Journal, 23, 93–102.

Green, P.F. (1986). On the thermo-tectonic evolution of northern England: Evidence from fission track analysis. Geology, 5, 493–506.

Green, P.F., Duddy, I.R., Gleadow, A.J.W. and Lovering, J.F. (1989). Apatite fission track analysis as a paleotemperature indicator for hydrocarbon exploration. In Thermal History of Sedimentary Basins—Methods and Case Histories, ed. N.D. Naeser, pp. 181–95. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Green, P.F., Duddy, I.R., Gleadow, A.J.W., Tingate, P.T. and Laslett, G.M. (1985). Fission-track annealing in apatite: Track length measurements and the form of the Arrhenius plot. Nuclear Tracks, 10, 323–8.

Green, P.F., Duddy, I.R., Gleadow, A.J.W., Tingate, P.T. and Laslett, G.M. (1986). Thermal annealing of fission tracks in apatite: 1—a qualitative description. Isotope Geoscience, 59, 237–53.

Green, P.F., Duddy, I.R., Laslett, G.M., Hegarty, K.A., Gleadow, A.J.W. and Lovering, J.F. (1989). Thermal annealing of fission tracks in apatite 4. Qualitative modelling techniques and extensions to geological time scales. Chemical Geology (Isotope Geoscience), 79, 155–82.

Grivet, M., Rebetez, M., Ben Ghouma, N., Chambaudet, A., Jonckheere, R. and Mars, M. (1993). Apatite fission-track age correlation and thermal history analysis from projected track length distributions. Chemical Geology, 103, 157–69.

Hurford, A.J. and Green, P.F. (1982). A users' guide to fission-track dating calibration. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 59, 343–54.

Hurford, A.J. and Green, P.F. (1983). The zeta age calibration of fission-track dating. Isotopic Geoscience, 1, 285–317.

Lal, D., Rajan, R.S. and Tamhane, A.S. (1969). Chemical composition of nuclei of Z > 22 in cosmic rays using meteoric minerals as detectors. Nature, 221, 33–7.

Laslett, G.M., Green, P.F., Duddy, I.R. and Gleadow, A.J.W. (1987). Thermal modelling of fission tracks in apatite: 2. A quantitative analysis. Chemical Geology, 65, 1–13.

Laslett, G.M., Kendall, W.S., Gleadow, A.J.W. and Duddy, I.R. (1982). Bias in measurement of fission-track length distributions. Nuclear Tracks, 6, 79–85.

Moore, M.E., Gleadow, A.J.W. and Lovering, J.F. (1986). Thermal evolution of rifted continental margins: New evidence from fission tracks in basement apatites from southeastern Australia. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 78, 255–70.

Naeser, C.W. (1967). The use of apatite and sphene for fission track age determinations. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 78, 1523–6.

Price, P.B. and Walker, R.M. (1963). Fossil tracks of charged particles in mica and the age of minerals. Journal of Geophysical Research, 68, 4847–62.

Sieber, K.G. (1986). Compositional Variation in Apatites. B.Sc. (Honours) dissertation, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Other methods:

Awwiller, D.N. and Summa, L.L. (1998). Constraining maximum paleotemperature using quartz cement abundances: Applications to the hydrocarbon systems of South American fold and thrust belts. In AAPG Bulletin, vol. 82(10), (Abstracts of Meeting: AAPG International Conference and Exhibition, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, November 8–11, 1998), p.1888. Tulsa, Oklahoma: American Association of Petroleum Geologists.

Robison, C.R., van Gijzel, P. and Darnell, L.M. (2000). The transmittance color index of amorphous organic matter: A thermal maturity indicator for petroleum source rocks. In International Journal of Coal Geology, vol. 43(1/4), (Proceedings of 15th Annual Meeting of the Society for Organic Petrology, Halifax, NS, Canada, July 27–28, 1998), eds. P.K. Mukhopadhyay, F. Goodarzi and  J.H. Calder, pp.83–103. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.